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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-August 2021
Volume 2 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 25-50

Online since Monday, July 26, 2021

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Machine learning to deep learning: Artificially intelligent approaches toward precision in public health p. 25
Arista Lahiri, Sweety Suman Jha
Machine learning is in fact an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) . It encompasses the use of algorithms in understanding the available information, i.e., data and analyzing it to arrive at an “intelligent” conclusion. Applications of AI in public health have already brought about a paradigm shift in the thinking for the provision of health care. With the global goal of universal health care, AI systems in public health can be considered very important in the resource-poor underserved areas to make a systematic arrangement for health-care delivery. The primary health care is cardinal to achieve universal health coverage. The AI systems can help the resource-contained and the grass-root level settings with remote access, algorithm-driven diagnostic aids, notification regarding emerging threats, and automated analysis of the health data in defined regions.
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Ethical aspect of duty of care and resource allocation during COVID-19 pandemic: An Indian overview p. 28
Sujash Biswas, Abhishek Das
Ethical practice is always considered to be a safe practice. Pandemic is one situation where the execution of ethical principles becomes a bit difficult as differences of opinion are to be taken into consideration. We have faced dilemmas previously during the AIDS outbreak or Avium Influenza pandemic. Similar ethical dilemmas if not more we are facing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ethical concerns are mainly related to duty of care towards COVID patients, scarce resource allocation, telemedicine service, and COVID death cases. In this article, we will discuss ethical issues in relation to the duty of care and scarce resource allocation. We will also highlight guidelines to minimize ethical dilemmas and the role of the administration to make ethically correct policies as much as possible. This will not only help us to face the current pandemic but also will help to create a root map for making policies if any such pandemic hits the community in future.
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Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy: Treatment pipeline, clinical trials, and challenges p. 32
Sweety Sharma, Bhawna Sharma
Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is potentially a fatal disease characterized by abnormal buildup of amyloid fibrils primarily in the heart causing progressive heart failure. It is categorized into two subtypes-hereditary ATTR and wild type ATTR. Previously, no treatment is available, due to which liver transplantation, multi-organ transplantation, and symptomatic treatment were the only therapies at that time. Approval of Vyndaqel (tafamidis meglumine) and Vyndamax (tafamidis) capsules in 2019, acts like a kick in the research fields due to which other therapeutics are now emerging. Several clinical trials are going on to evaluate the efficacy of different drugs in ATTR-CM. Most of the clinical trials demonstrated positive outcomes which leads to further evaluation for confirmation. In this review treatment pipeline, ongoing clinical trials and challenges related to ATTR-CM are described.
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Association of pharmacotherapy with clinicians' nutritional counseling practices to diabetic and hypertensive patients Highly accessed article p. 38
Deldar Morad Abdulah, Saeid Kider Ahmed, Raghib Mustafa, Mahir Sadullah Saeed
Background: Nutrition counseling is an important tool for encouraging healthy nutrition behaviors among individuals. The nutritional imbalance is rising worldwide, leading to the emergence of various diseases. Physicians have an important role in impeding healthy nutrition in patients. Aims and Objectives: The role of patients prone to pharmacotherapy on nutritional counseling and management (NCM) practices of clinicians to patients with diabetes or hypertension in the routine clinical practice was explored in this study. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 267 clinicians, including family doctors, general practitioners, and internists were purposively included. The attitudes toward NCM and their practices in routine clinical working were examined through the self-reported technique. Results: The mean age of the physicians was 34.18 and had experience for 5 years. A small percentage of them have completed the nutrition training course (26.59%). The study showed that different kinds of NCM, including nutritional assessment, therapy, and education, were presented to diabetic and hypertensive patients. The majority of the physicians emphasized their role (88.1%) in promoting nutritional therapy. Besides, most of them (88.0%) mentioned that a high priority must be given to NCM in routine clinical practice. The prone of patients to pharmacotherapy rather than diet therapy was determined to be a barrier to the NCM to diabetic and hypertensive patients. Conclusions: This study showed that physicians had good attitudes toward NCM; however, the prone of the diabetic and hypertensive patients to pharmacotherapy rather than diet therapy impedes the NCM by clinicians.
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Quality of life scale among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in a rural area of Delhi: A facility-based study p. 46
Saurav Basu, Ruchira Pangtey, Bratati Banerjee, Saurabh Kumar
Background: The average Indian woman has early onset menopause compared to the global average. Assessment of the quality of life (QOL) among Indian women with perimenopause or postmenopause at health facilities using a rapidly administered, validated instrument is required. Objective: To assess the QOL among perimenopause and postmenopausal women in India and to ascertain the factors influencing their QOL using a brief instrument suitable for clinical use. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during August to October 2019 in the medical outpatient department at a government secondary care hospital in a rural area of Delhi, India. We enrolled women in the age group of 40–59 years. Results: We recruited 136 participants with a response rate of 92%. The mean (standard deviation) age of the participants was 49.2 (6.1) years. A majority (51.2%) of the participants were illiterate, and only 22 (16.6%) were employed. The Cronbach's alpha of the Utian QOL was 0.824, indicating good reliability. The QOL scores of the participants were below average for the occupational and emotional domains, but higher for the health and sexual domains. On bivariate analysis, we found education not more than primary school, not being employed, and having more than two children were associated with lower QOL scores. Conclusion: Women with greater education, employment, with up-to two children and without depressive symptoms reported a better QOL, but it did not differ significantly between perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.
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