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 Table of Contents  
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 93-94

Impact of lifestyle on COVID-19 patients associated with noncommunicable diseases


1 Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Date of Submission12-Jun-2021
Date of Decision19-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance27-Jun-2021
Date of Web Publication14-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Tarun Kumar Suvvari
17-2-49/2, Vengala Rao Colony, Amadalavalasa, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jphpc.jphpc_14_21

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How to cite this article:
Mantha MK, Suvvari TK, Kota T, Kalra HS. Impact of lifestyle on COVID-19 patients associated with noncommunicable diseases. J Public Health Prim Care 2022;3:93-4

How to cite this URL:
Mantha MK, Suvvari TK, Kota T, Kalra HS. Impact of lifestyle on COVID-19 patients associated with noncommunicable diseases. J Public Health Prim Care [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Oct 1];3:93-4. Available from: http://www.jphpc.org/text.asp?2022/3/3/93/354812



To Editor,

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for more than 71% of all deaths occurring per year globally. Among NCDs, cardiovascular diseases were the most common cause of death, followed by cancers, respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Other NCDs include obesity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, arthritis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and various other diseases.[1] Fifty percent of people with NCDs do not adhere to prescribed treatment; in fact, adherence to lifestyle interventions is especially considered a major challenge.[2]

During the primitive stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, the government and researchers primarily focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying treatment strategies. Even though the controlling of communicable disease has utmost importance, their harmful and long-term effects on NCDs individuals are significant. Furthermore, many studies also stated that individuals with NCDs are at increased risk of and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 infection.[3] COVID-19 infection in population with NCDs impacts the rate and progression of their existing clinical conditions.[3]

Lockdown due to COVID-19 results in some short- and long-term consequences; for example, quarantine restrictions reduce physical activity, and many acquired unhealthy lifestyles, which increases risk factors of NCDs and their clinical symptoms. Lockdown and travel restrictions have also led to insecure economic channels, difficulties in accessing health services, decreased physical activity, and poor food choices resulting in an increased risk of NCDs and their clinical symptoms.[3] However, there has been a growing recognition that the lack of guidelines for effective programmatic management of NCDs during this pandemic can hinder efforts in combating both NCDs and COVID-19.[4]

Prevention and treatment of NCDs is the present frontline of research globally because of its' substantial impact on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Research data suggest that diet components such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids fibers, and lifestyle choices such as fasting and physical exercise are the important factors that influence the signaling pathways that improve metabolic homeostasis and immunity.[5]

An improvement in healthy meal consumption patterns and a restriction of unhealthy food choices were observed during the quarantine period, especially in the younger population. However, at the same time, reduction in physical activity and abnormal rise in daily screen time was also noted among upper socioeconomic strata and even more so among men. Furthermore, quarantine-induced stress and anxiety showed an increased risk of NCDs by a unit in one-fourth of the population. Mental health was also adversely affected. By the proper understanding of these changes, there is a chance to develop interventions to alleviate the negative lifestyle behaviors developed by people during the COVID lockdown. Most studies also suggest focusing on mental health and public disease control and prevention interventions for the implementation.[6]

The existing literature indicates a mixed effect of preventive measures adopted to control COVID-19 infection on lifestyle-related behavior. The significant improvement in regular meal consumption patterns, eating healthy food, and avoiding intake of unhealthy food are positive indicators, but, in conjunction, there is a reduction in physical activity significantly and a rise in rest time, digital screen time, and stress, which are negative indicators. The negative indicators of lifestyle-related behaviors overshadow the positive indicators, resulting in weight gain and a further increase in metabolic complications.

In conclusion, there is an urgent need for further research on developing validated tools for the proper assessment of the impact of NCDs on COVID-19 and guidelines for physical activity and nutritional recommendations on health maintenance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The central strategies include evaluating the existing research and considering emerging evidence on NCDs, initiating the NCDs-related programs and services.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet 2016;388:1659-724.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Lunde P, Nilsson BB, Bergland A, Kværner KJ, Bye A. The effectiveness of smartphone apps for lifestyle improvement in noncommunicable diseases: Systematic review and meta-analyses. J Med Internet Res 2018;20:e162.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Palmer K, Monaco A, Kivipelto M, Onder G, Maggi S, Michel JP, et al. The potential long-term impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on patients with non-communicable diseases in Europe: Consequences for healthy ageing. Aging Clin Exp Res 2020;32:1189-94.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Basu S. Non-communicable disease management in vulnerable patients during Covid-19. Indian J Med Ethics 2020;V: 103-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Margină D, Ungurianu A, Purdel C, Nițulescu GM, Tsoukalas D, Sarandi E, et al. Analysis of the intricate effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols on inflammatory pathways in health and disease. Food Chem Toxicol 2020;143:111558.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Chopra S, Ranjan P, Singh V, Kumar S, Arora M, Hasan MS, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviours - A cross-sectional audit of responses from nine hundred and ninety-five participants from India. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:2021-30.  Back to cited text no. 6
    




 

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